HomeCataloging Best PracticesAppendicesAppendix D: Fixed Fields (Leader & 008 Tags)

7.4. Appendix D: Fixed Fields (Leader & 008 Tags)

Always include the appropriate fixed fields for each catalog record. Fixed fields affect how records are displayed, the facets that are searched, and how records can be used. Fixed fields in Evergreen are displayed in the LDR and 008 fields in flat text and in the grid in MARC Edit. All edits to fixed fields should be completed in the grid.

Item catalogers should be able to read, understand, and evaluate fixed fields (LDR and 008). Bibliographic catalogers should be able to create and alter fixed fields (LDR and 008).

Important Fields


While all of the fixed fields have an impact on display and search, there are a select few that are especially important.


Type of Date (DtSt)/Date 1/Date 2


Publication, reprint, copyright, and other dates are coded in these fields. This is usually the information used by your LIS to search for resources or sort results by date. The Type of Date must match the date(s) coded in the Date 1 and/or Date 2 field(s). Date 1 is for publication date (or only date). Date 2 is for copyright date (if explicitly named and included in a separate 264).

The “Date1” fixed field is used for sorting search results, rather than the 264 field, so both must be defined. If "Date1" is left blank, patrons will not get useful results from the “Newest to Oldest” sort in Advanced Search.


Language (Lang)


Language of the resource’s content. Makes resources searchable by language.


English = eng

Spanish = spa

Other codes can be found at http://www.loc.gov/marc/languages/


Target audience (Audn)


Makes books and DVDs searchable and sortable by audience. Also helps clarify where items may be shelved. Use the audience defined by the publisher, rather than the broadest potential audience for the item. Example: If a book targets a young adult audience, use audience code d, even if your library may shelve copies on both adult and young adult shelves.

Note that there is often not information in this field, but there should be. Bibliographic catalogers should always fill in this information. Item catalogers should refer records without this information to bibliographic catalogers. One of the four following codes should be used:


Juvenile works = j

Young adult works = d

Adult works = e

General audience = g (use as a last resort, especially with videos that are for a more general audience)

Literary form (LitF)


Makes it possible to easily distinguish between fiction and non-fiction books. Other codes for form are also possible.


Fiction = 1

Non-fiction = 0

Other forms can be found at https://www.oclc.org/bibformats/en/fixedfield/litf.html



Reading/Creating the 008 field


Codes can be found by right-clicking on the field or by visiting https://www.oclc.org/bibformats/en/fixedfield.html. Any positions that cannot be filled with a code are left blank.


Character Positions for All Types of Materials

00-05 - Date entered on file (supplied by computer)

06 - Type of date/Publication status

07-10 - Date 1

11-14 - Date 2

15-17 - Place of publication, production, or execution

18-34 - Reserved for coding specific to different material types

35-37 - Language of resource

38 - Modified record

39 - Cataloging source


Character Positions for Books

18-21 - Illustration information

22 - Target audience

23 - Form of resource

24-27 - Nature of contents

28 - Government publication

29 - Conference publication

30 - Festschrift

31 - Index

32 - Undefined (leave blank)

33 - Literary form

34 - Biography


Character Positions for Computer Files

18-21 - Undefined (leave blank)

22 - Target audience

23 - Form of resource

24-25 - Undefined (leave blank)

26 - Type of computer file

27 - Undefined (leave blank)

28 - Government publication

29-34 - Undefined (leave blank)


Character Positions for Continuing Resources (Magazines, etc.)

18 - Frequency

19 - Regularity

20 - Undefined (leave blank)

21 - Type of continuing resource

22 - Form of original resource

23 - Form of resource

24 - Nature of entire work

25-27 - Nature of contents

28 - Government publication

29 - Conference publication

30-32 - Undefined (leave blank)

33 - Original alphabet or script of title

34 - Entry convention


Character Positions for Visual Materials

18-20 - Running time

21 - Undefined (leave blank)

22 - Target audience

23-27 - Undefined (leave blank)

28 - Government publication

29 - Form of resource

30-32 - Undefined (leave blank)

33 - Type of visual material

34 - Technique

MARC Fixed Field Editor Right-Click Context Menu Options

The MARC Fixed Field Editor provides suggested values for select fixed fields based on the record type being edited. Users can right-click on the value control for a fixed field and choose the appropriate value from the menu options. The Evergreen database contains information from the Library of Congress’s MARC 21 format standards that includes possible values for select fixed fields. The right-click context menu options are available for fixed fields whose values are already stored in the database. For the fixed fields that do not already contain possible values in the database, the user will see the basic clipboard operation options (such as cut, copy, paste, etc.).

To Access the MARC Fixed Field Editor Right-Click Context Menu Options:

  1. Within the bibliographic record that needs to be edited, select Actions for this Record.
  2. Click MARC Edit.
  3. Make sure that the Flat-Text Editor checkbox is not selected and that you are not using the Flat-Text Editor interface.
  4. Right-click on the value control for the fixed field that needs to be edited.

    5. Select the appropriate value for the fixed field from the menu options.

    6. Continue editing the MARC record, as needed. Once you are finished editing the record, click Save Record.

Changing the values in the fixed fields will also update the appropriate position in the Leader or 008 Field and other applicable fields (such as the 006 Field).

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