HomeNC Cardinal Cataloging Best Practice StandardsCataloging OverviewSubject and Genre/Form Headings

1.10. Subject and Genre/Form Headings

Subject headings refer to what a resource is ABOUT.

Genre headings refer to what a resource IS.

 

Subject headings are encoded most commonly in the 600, 650, and 651 fields, though other 6XX fields are possible. The second indicator in a subject heading specifies the subject heading vocabulary the term comes from. Common numbers include:

 

Genre headings are encoded in the 655 field. Genre headings should ideally come from the Library of Congress Genre/Form Thesaurus, which is coded with a second indicator of 7 and $2 lcgft (see Examples 3a and 3b below). 

Delete duplicate subject and genre headings, favoring those from Library of Congress Subject Headings and Library of Congress Genre/Form Headings vocabularies, as seen in Examples 3a and 3b.

 

Recommendation concerning Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):

The Cardinal Authority Working Group recommends the sole use of LCSH in Cardinal for all adult English materials.  This subject heading list is freely available from the Library of Congress, widely used world-wide and is actively maintained by the Library of Congress.  All headings from other vocabulary lists should be either deleted or converted to LCSH as, and when, possible.  LC’s Subject Headings Manual should be consulted as needed for guidance on the use and application of LCSH.  This manual is freely available at: http://www.loc.gov/aba/publications/FreeSHM/freeshm.html

 

Recommendation concerning Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials (lcgft):

The Cardinal Authority Working Group recommends the sole use of lcgft in Cardinal for genre/form terms with the Guidelines on Subject Access to Individual Works of Fiction, Drama, Etc. (gsafd) held in reserve for secondary use when a lcgft term is not yet available. The lcgft vocabulary list was started in 2007 by the Library of Congress in cooperation with various subject specialists and contains terms for cartographic materials, general materials (such as dictionaries), law materials, moving images (films and television programs), music, non-musical sound recordings, and religious materials in addition to literature materials.  This list is actively maintained and expanded by the Library of Congress.  All genre terms from other vocabulary lists should be either deleted or converted to lcgft as, and when, possible.  LC’s Genre/Form Terms Manual should be consulted as needed for guidance on the use and application of lcgft.  This manual is freely available at: http://www.loc.gov/aba/publications/FreeLCGFT/freelcgft.html

Always prefer Library of Congress Subject Headings (second indicator 0) and Library of Congress Genre Form Terms (second indicator 7, $2 lcgft).


650         0    ‡aVoyages and travels ‡vFiction.
650         0    ‡aWidowers ‡vFiction.
650         0    ‡aOrphans ‡vFiction.
650         0    ‡aKiowa Indians ‡vFiction.
651         0    ‡aUnited States ‡xHistory ‡y19th century ‡vFiction.
650         7    ‡aFICTION / Historical. ‡2bisacsh
650         7    ‡aFICTION / Literary. ‡2bisacsh
650         7    ‡aFICTION / General. ‡2bisacsh
650         7    ‡aKiowa Indians. ‡2fast ‡0(OCoLC)fst00987810
650         7    ‡aOrphans. ‡2fast ‡0(OCoLC)fst01048433
650         7    ‡aVoyages and travels. ‡2fast ‡0(OCoLC)fst01169308
650         7    ‡aWidowers. ‡2fast ‡0(OCoLC)fst01174932
651         7    ‡aUnited States. ‡2fast ‡0(OCoLC)fst01204155
648         7    ‡a1800-1899 ‡2fast
655         7    ‡aHistorical fiction. ‡2lcgft
655         7    ‡aFiction. ‡2fast ‡0(OCoLC)fst01423787
655         7    ‡aHistorical fiction. ‡2fast ‡0(OCoLC)fst01726640
655         7    ‡aHistory. ‡2fast ‡0(OCoLC)fst01411628


650         0    ‡aVoyages and travels ‡vFiction.
650         0    ‡aWidowers ‡vFiction.
650         0    ‡aOrphans ‡vFiction.
650         0    ‡aKiowa Indians ‡vFiction.
651         0    ‡aUnited States ‡xHistory ‡y19th century ‡vFiction.
655         7    ‡aHistorical fiction. ‡2lcgft


Recommendation concerning the use of foreign language subject headings:

For materials in all formats whose primary language is Spanish the Cardinal Authority Working Group recommends that in addition to LCSH terms, subject headings from the Bilindex vocabulary list should also be added, or at least preserved.  These headings should be correctly coded as 650 -7 [Topic term] $2 bidex.  The working group recommends that the consortium investigate a consortium subscription to Bilindex due to the ever-increasing population in North Carolina whose native language is Spanish.  Although these subject heading terms are widely used on bib records found in OCLC and LC it would be difficult to add them to new records without access to the vocabulary list itself.  However, personal, corporate and place names should continue to come from the naf and LCSH.  The working group further recommends the continued observance of foreign languages and as another one becomes prominently used in the state then a controlled vocabulary list for that language should be sought.  All foreign language subject terms other than those from Bilindex should be deleted.

 

Recommendation concerning OCLC’s fast headings

The Authorities Working Group recommends that fast headings be deleted from the Cardinal database.  Deleting these headings will reduce duplication of headings in the database.

Recommendation concerning Children’s subject headings

The Authorities Working Group recommends the use of adult subject headings with the appropriate juvenile subject subdivision heading.  The working group is also recommending that children’s subject headings from the lcshac list not be used.  The working group is making this recommendation because children’s subject headings usually duplicate adult headings and the KPAC can be easily configured to accommodate this decision.


Genre headings should also be used and should be taken from the Library of Congress Genre and Form Thesaurus and are applied in the same manner regardless of audience age.

 

Recommendation concerning Young adult subject headings

The Authorities Working Group recommends that adult subject headings without juvenile subject subdivisions be used for young adult materials.  In addition to the subject headings, the working group encourages the use of the following genre headings when appropriate. 

655 -7 Teen television programs $2 lcgft
655 -7 Teen films $2 lcgft
655 -7 Young adult literature $2 lcsh
655 -7 Young adult drama $2 lcsh
655 -7 Young adult fiction $2 lcsh
655 -7 Young adult poetry $2 lcsh


Recommendation concerning comics and graphic novels

The Authorities Working Group recommends that the genre heading “655 -7 Graphic novels. $2 lcgft” be used for all graphic novels regardless of the age group.  The reading level will be indicated by the addition of subject subdivision headings to topical subject headings as well as the Audience fixed field code and the shelving location in the library.  The genre heading “Comics (Graphic works)” is a broader genre term which includes both graphic novels and comics and can be used whenever the work in hand cannot be easily placed into either category.  There are currently 28 different comic genre headings that can be used as appropriate. 

Some examples are:

Action and adventure comics
Fantasy comics
Nonfiction comics
Paranormal comics
Science fiction comics
Sports comics
Spy comics
Superhero comics
War comics

The subject subdivision “$v Comic books, strips, etc.” should be added to subject headings as appropriate.  However, additional form subject subdivisions should not be added after this subdivision to bring out the fiction or nonfiction aspect of the work.

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